LONDON — Britain decided Tuesday to allow Chinese tech giant Huawei to supply new high-speed network equipment, ignoring the U.S. government’s warnings that it would sever intelligence cooperation if the company was not banned.
Britain’s decision is the first by a major U.S. ally in Europe, and follows intense lobbying from the Trump administration and China as the two vie for technological dominance.
It sets up a diplomatic clash with the Americans, who claim that British sovereignty is at risk because the company could give the Chinese government access to data, an allegation Huawei denies.
“We would never take decisions that threaten our national security or the security of our Five Eyes partners,” Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab said, referring a security arrangement in which Britain, the United States, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, share intelligence. “We know more about Huawei and the risks that it poses than any other country in the world.”
The decision was awkward for British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, who risks the fury of one of Britain’s closest allies at just the moment it needs Trump’s administration to quickly strike a trade deal after Brexit. Britain is also loath to insult China, which it likewise needs for future trade deals.
U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo is due to visit London on Wednesday to meet with Johnson and Raab to reaffirm the trans-Atlantic relationship.
A senior Trump administration official said the U.S. is disappointed by the decision, adding that the U.S. government would work with the U.K. on a “way forward” that leads to the exclusion of “untrusted vendor components” from 5G networks. The official was not authorized to comment on the sensitive diplomacy between longstanding allies and spoke on condition of anonymity.
In its decision, the British government said it was excluding “high risk” companies from supplying the sensitive “core” parts of the new fifth-generation, or 5G, networks. The core is the brain that keeps track, among other things, of smartphones connecting to networks and helps manage data traffic.
But Britain will allow high risk suppliers to provide up to 35% of the less risky radio access network of antennas and base stations.
The announcement did not mention any companies by name but said “high risk vendors are those who pose greater security and resilience risks to U.K. telecoms networks” – a clear reference to Huawei.
By giving Huawei limited access, Johnson’s government is attempting to thread a path between the U.S. and China.
Huawei said it was “reassured” by the British decision.
“This evidence-based decision will result in a more advanced, more secure and more cost-effective telecoms infrastructure that is fit for the future,” Vice-President Victor Zhang said. “It gives the U.K. access to world-leading technology and ensures a competitive market.”
The 5G technology is expected to drive the next wave of innovation, transmitting massive amounts of data from more objects and locations. It would, for example, help make possible self-driving cars or allow telemedicine, in which doctors control robots in remote surgery on patients miles away.
Huawei is the top global supplier of mobile networks, with its gear often considered cost-effective and high-quality.
The United States says that China’s communist leaders could, under a 2017 national intelligence law, compel Huawei to carry out cyberespionage. The U.S. has threatened repeatedly to cut off intelligence sharing with allies that use Huawei.
“I’m deeply troubled by the U.K. government’s decision to allow Huawei to build components of the country’s 5G network. The risks Huawei poses are well-documented and impossible to ignore; once the door is opened, they may also prove impossible to contain,” said Senate Intelligence Committee Chairman Sen. Richard Burr (R-NC). “It is my hope U.K. officials will fully consider the long-term and far-reaching consequences of allowing the Chinese telecom giant, with ties to the Chinese government and intelligence services, access to its burgeoning 5G network. While the U.S. must consider its own security and economic priorities, I’m committed to working with U.S. officials, the U.K., and other allies as we move forward, including by supporting the development of credible alternatives to Huawei.”
Earlier this month, Burr and a bipartisan group of Senators introduced the Utilizing Strategic Allied (USA) Telecommunications Act to encourage the development of innovative 5G alternatives.
With 5G, U.S. officials also worry that because the “core” will run extensively on software, it could be nearly impossible to spot an accidental vulnerability or a malicious “backdoor” among millions of lines of computer code. Huawei denies the allegations, saying there’s never been any evidence it is responsible for a breach.
For Britain, the 5G infrastructure program is considered critical as it leaves the European Union and aims to position its economy to benefit from technological innovation.
The government said Tuesday it is taking some steps that will allow it “to mitigate the potential risk posed by the supply chain and to combat the range of threats, whether cyber criminals, or state sponsored attacks.”
The U.K. National Cyber Security Centre will issue guidance with practical steps on how to mitigate the risks to wireless operators, some of whom have already started installing Huawei 5G gear into their networks. They were reluctant to rip it out and replace it with equipment from rivals including Finland’s Nokia and Sweden’s Ericsson.
British carrier Vodafone, which doesn’t use Huawei in its core, said that using multiple suppliers “is the best way to safeguard the delivery of services to all mobile customers.”